BALANCE and EQUILIBRIUM
這篇是就記憶喚回(memory recall) 的閱讀筆記整理。
由「專注、背景（環境）、非自主記憶喚回」可知，為了提高學習效率，「專注」 是最重要的。為了提昇專注，必須適當地選擇「背景（環境）」，以降低 「非自主記憶喚回」（分心）的機率。
善用「測試效應、干擾」；在學習一個段落之後，利用「干擾」（散散步、做做別 的事）來刻意擾亂短期記憶，輔以自由／提示／序列喚回的練習，平衡運用大腦的 （長期）記憶編碼、喚回的過程，幫助形成長期記憶。
人類對正面／負面（也就是非中性的）字詞、不尋常、不平常的聲音、語言的反 應較大，進而影響記憶喚回過程。這是演化出來的「以情緒波動幅度篩選記憶的 重要性」的機制。
Recall in memory refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past. Along with encoding and storage, it is one of the three core processes of memory. There are three main types of recall: free recall, cued recall and serial recall.
Two main theories of the process of recall are the two-stage theory and the theory of encoding specificity.
Free recall describes the process in which a person is given a list of items to remember and then is tested by being asked to recall them in any order.
Free recall often displays evidence of primacy and recency effects.
after participants learn something, testing their memory with mental operations helps later recall. The act of recalling instead of restudying creates new and longer lasting connection ... This phenomenon is commonly referred to as the testing effect.
Serial recall in long-term memory (LTM) differs from serial recall in short-term memory (STM). To store a sequence in LTM, the sequence is repeated over time until it is represented in memory as a whole, rather than as a series of items. In this way, there is no need to remember the relationships between the items and their original positions.
In STM, immediate serial recall (ISR) has been thought to result from one of two mechanisms. The first refers to ISR as a result of associations between the items and their positions in a sequence, while the second refers to associations between items.
The Primacy Model moves away from these two assumptions, suggesting that ISR results from a gradient of activation levels where each item has a particular level of activation that corresponds to its position.
Research has supported the fact that immediate serial recall performance is much better when the list is homogenous (of the same semantic category) than when they are heterogeneous (of different semantic category). This suggests that semantic representations are beneficial to immediate serial recall performance.
different effects are generally seen in serial recall studies with humans:
- List length effect
- Primacy and recency effects
- Transposition gradients
- Item confusion errors
- Repetition errors
- Fill-in effects
- Protrusion effects
- Word-length effects
The effect of attention on memory recall has surprising results. It seems that the only time attention largely affects memory is during the encoding phase. During this phase, performing a parallel task can severely impair retrieval success.
Human's attention on words is impacted by emotion grasping vocabulary. Negative and positive words are better recalled than neutral words that are spoken. ... A study was conducted to observe if the use of emotional vocabulary was a key receptor of recall memory.
Recall memory is linked with instincts and mechanisms in order to remember how an event happened to learn from it or avoid the agitator, connections are made with emotions. For instance, if a speaker is very calm and neutral, the effectiveness of encoding memory is very low and listeners get the gist of what the speaker is discussing. On the other hand, if a speaker is shouting and/or using emotionally driven words, listeners tend to remember key phrases and the meaning of the speech.
Motivation is a factor that encourages a person to perform and succeed at the task at hand.
participants were placed in either forced report, free report or free report plus incentive groups. In each group, they found that the amount of correct information recalled did not differ, yet in the group where participants were given an incentive they had higher accuracy results.
In the absence of interference, there are two factors at play when recalling a list of items: the recency and the primacy effects. The recency effect occurs when the short-term memory is used to remember the most recent items, and the primacy effect occurs when the long-term memory has encoded the earlier items.
Context-dependency effects on recall are typically interpreted as evidence that the characteristics of the environment are encoded as part of the memory trace and can be used to enhance retrieval of the other information in the trace.
State-dependent retrieval is demonstrated when material learned under one State is best recalled in that same state.
Stimulants, such as cocaine, amphetamines or caffeine are known to improve recall in humans. However, the effect of prolonged use of stimulants on cognitive functioning is very different from the impact on one-time users. Some researchers have found stimulant use to lower recall rates in humans after prolonged usage. The axons, dendrites, and neurons wear out in many cases. Current research illustrates a paradoxical effect.
Consistently, females perform better than males on episodic memory tasks including delayed recall and recognition. However, males and females do not differ on working, immediate and semantic memory tasks.
information presented by the women speaker was more easily recalled by all the members of the study ... Researchers believe this to be a significant difference between genders because women's voices have better acoustics, ranging from low tones to high tones. Since their voices have this range, semantic encoding is increased for the pitches that stimulate the auditory component of the brain; this resonates better in the ear function. Since pitch ranges from low tones to high tones, it draws people's attention to the words attributed with the tone. As the tone changes, words stand out and from these differences memories can be stored. Recall is made easier since the association the brain can make is between words and sounds spoken.
Females tend to remember nonverbal cues and associate the meaning of a discussion with gestures. Since males follow verbal cues they react more to the facts and actual words within a discussion to recall what was said, but fluctuations in the speaker's voice helps them maintain the memories.
Females tend to remember a speaker's voice one week after hearing the speaker; they can recall exactly what the speaker sounded like and can recall the exact word choice used during a presentation. Males, on the other hand, do not have that type of recall memory. They tend to recall information they have read, for instance, lists of objects are better recalled for men than women. The only similarity they have is that when emotional words are used or an emotional tone is produced, males and females tend to recall those changes.
a study of the effect of breakfast timing on selected cognitive functions of elementary school students. Their results found that children who ate breakfast at school scored notably higher on most of the cognitive tests than did students who ate breakfast at home and also children who did not eat breakfast at all.
Studies have indicated that children who are inactive have poor health, but they also have poor cognitive health also. With low fitness there is a relationship to decreased cognitive functioning; for instance there are different types of cognitive problems like perception, memory, cognitive control, and there is lower academic achievement.
Physical activity has a significant influence on the hippocampus, since this is the part of the brain that is responsible for encoding information into memory.
The phenomenological account of recall is referred to as metacognition, or "knowing about knowing". This includes many states of conscious awareness known as feeling-of-knowing states, such as the tip-of-the-tongue state. It has been suggested that metacognition serves a self-regulatory purpose whereby the brain can observe errors in processing and actively devote resources to resolving the problem. It is considered an important aspect of cognition that can aid in the development of successful learning strategies that can also be generalized to other situations.
A key technique in improving and helping recall memory is to take advantage of Mnemonic devices and other cognitive strategies. Mnemonic devices are a type of cognitive strategy that enables individuals to memorize and recall new information in an easier fashion, rather than just having to remember a list of information that is not related to one another.
A tip of the tongue (TOT) state refers to the perception of a large gap between the identification or knowledge of a specific subject and being able to recall descriptors or names involving said subject.
Psycholinguistics views TOT states as a failure of retrieval from lexical memory (see Cohort Model) being cued by semantic memory (facts).
The metacognitive perspective views TOT states simply as the awareness felt when such an event occurs and the perception of the experience involved.
two types of involuntary memory retrieval identified: involuntary autobiographical memory retrieval, and involuntary semantic memory retrieval
Involuntary autobiographical memory (IAM) retrieval occurs spontaneously as the result of sensory cues as well as internal cues, such as thought or intention.
Involuntary semantic memory retrieval (ISM), or "semantic-popping", occurs in the same fashion as IAM retrieval. However, the elicited memory is devoid of personal grounding and often considered trivial, such as a random word, image, or phrase. ISM retrieval can occur as a result of spreading activation, where words, thoughts, and concepts activate related semantic memories continually.
False memories result from persistent beliefs, suggestions via authority figures, or statements of false information. Repeated exposure to these stimuli influence the reorganization of a person's memory, affecting its details, or implanting vivid false accounts of an event.
An example of this is cryptomnesia, or inadvertent plagiarism, where one duplicates a work that they have previously encountered believing it to be their original idea. False memories can also be accounted for by the generation effect, which is an observable phenomenon where repeated exposure to a belief, suggestion, or false information is better remembered with each subsequent generation. This can be seen with the misinformation effect, where an eye-witness account of an event can be influenced by a bystander account of the same event, or by suggestion via an authority figure.
Retrograde amnesia is typically the result of physical or psychological trauma which manifests itself as the inability to remember information preceding the traumatic event.
The Face Advantage allows information and memories to be recalled easier through the presentation of a person's face rather than a person's voice.
TW Yang <firstname.lastname@example.org>
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