BALANCE and EQUILIBRIUM
這篇是就記憶編碼(memory encoding) 的閱讀筆記整理。
Visual encoding is the process of encoding images and visual sensory information. This means that people can convert the new information that they stored into mental pictures
Elaborative encoding is the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory. how we remember something depends on how we think about it at the time. Many studies have shown that long-term retention is greatly enhanced by elaborative encoding
Acoustic encoding is the encoding of auditory impulses. processing of auditory information is aided by the concept of the phonological loop, which allows input within our echoic memory to be sub vocally rehearsed in order to facilitate remembering
Tactile encoding is the processing and encoding of how something feels, normally through touch.
Organizational encoding is the course of classifying information permitting to the associations amid a sequence of terms.
In general encoding for short-term storage (STS) in the brain relies primarily on acoustic rather than semantic encoding.
Semantic encoding is the processing and encoding of sensory input that has particular meaning or can be applied to a context. Various strategies can be applied such as chunking and mnemonics to aid in encoding, and in some cases, allow deep processing, and optimizing retrieval.
Encoding is a biological event that begins with perception. All perceived and striking sensations travel to the brain's thalamus where all these sensations are combined into one single experience.
Encoding is achieved using a combination of chemicals and electricity.
A phenomenon called long-term potentiation allows a synapse to increase strength with increasing numbers of transmitted signals between the two neurons.
The process of encoding is not yet well understood, however key advances have shed light on the nature of these mechanisms.
These changes include the modification of neural synapses, modification of proteins, creation of new synapses, activation of gene expression and new protein synthesis. However, encoding can occur on different levels. The first step is short-term memory formation, followed by the conversion to a long-term memory, and then a long-term memory consolidation process.
Synaptic plasticity is the ability of the brain to strengthen, weaken, destroy and create neural synapses and is the basis for learning. In the short term, synaptic changes may include the strengthening or weakening of a connection by modifying the preexisting proteins leading to a modification in synapse connection strength. In the long term, entirely new connections may form or the number of synapses at a connection may be increased, or reduced.
Human memory, including the process of encoding, is known to be a heritable trait that is controlled by more than one gene. In fact, twin studies suggest that genetic differences are responsible for as much as 50% of the variance seen in memory tasks.
Different levels of processing influence how well information is remembered. These levels of processing can be illustrated by maintenance and elaborate rehearsal.
Maintenance rehearsal is a shallow form of processing information which involves focusing on an object without thought to its meaning or its association with other objects.
elaborative or relational rehearsal is a process in which you relate new material to information already stored in Long-term memory.
Maintenance rehearsal has been demonstrated to be important in learning but its effects can only be demonstrated using indirect methods such as lexical decision tasks, and word stem completion which are used to assess implicit learning.
Studies have shown that the intention to learn has no direct effect on memory encoding. Instead, memory encoding is dependent on how deeply each item is encoded, which could be affected by intention to learn, but not exclusively. That is, intention to learn can lead to more effective learning strategies, and consequently, better memory encoding
Organization can be seen as the key to better memory.
although the external environment is important at the time of encoding in creating multiple pathways for retrieval, other studies have shown that simply creating the same internal state that you had at the time of encoding is sufficient to serve as a retrieval cue.
to truly be efficient at remembering information, one must consider the demands that future recall will place on this information and study in a way that will match those demands
Computational models of memory encoding have been developed in order to better understand and simulate the mostly expected, yet sometimes wildly unpredictable, behaviors of human memory.
TW Yang <firstname.lastname@example.org>
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